Pengertian, Rumus, serta 100 Contoh Infinitive

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Pengertian, Rumus, serta 100 Contoh Infinitive

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INFINITIVE

            Infinitive dalam struktur kebahasaan (grammar) yakni bentuk kata kerja dasar atau pertama (yang belum terikat dengan pokok kalimat).

  1. Macam-macam Infinitive

Ada dua macam infinitive, yaitu :

  1. Infinitive dengan to yang sering disebut to infinitive.
  2. Infinitive tanpa to yang disebut dengan bare infinitive.

 

Pengertian, Rumus, serta 100 Contoh Infinitive
Pengertian, Rumus, serta 100 Contoh Infinitive

TO INFINITIVE

To infinitive merupkan suatu structure untuk membantu perluasan makna (memberi) makna tambahan jika kalimat dasar tidak memenuhi.

Dilihat dari letaknya dalam kalimat, to infinitive berfungsi sebagai :

  1. Main Verb

Dalam hal ini (GRAMMAR yang kita gunakan), yakni to infinitive sering digunakandalam penulisan bersama dengan verb to be:  is, are, am, were, was  untuk menyatakan suatu tindakan berupa perintah, atau keinginan, atau juga keharusan yang meupakansimilar expression of modal “must”. Biasanya subjectnya merupakan subject pelaku. To infinitive juga digunakan bersama dengan similar expression of modal yang lain yang be to dan similar expression of modal lainnya seperti be able to, be going to, ought to, (be) used to, have to, be supposed to berfungsi sebagai auxiliary dan diikuti oleh ordinarynya (verb utamanya)

           Contoh :

     You are to go now.

              aux   ord         

  She must be able to do her homework.

                     aux       ord

  1. Complementation

To infinitive berfungsi sebagai pelengkap kata kerja.

           Contoh :    I fail to see what you mean.

                           The man who is standing there appears to be a wise mean.

                            Tony promised to meet Susi in the post office.

           To infinitive digunakan di belakang kata kerja berikut:

                           Group A : VERB + TO INFINITIVE

Hope Promise Seem ask arrange
Plan Agree Appear expect beg
Intend Offer Pretend would like care
Decide Refuse Afford want claim
Need Consent      

           Contoh:

  1. I hope to see you again soon.
  2. He promised to be here on time.
  3. She refused to admit her guilt.
  4. Budi Handuk decides to continue his study.
  1. Predication after Noun

To infinitive berfungsi sebagai pelengkap object dan yang melakukan to infinitive adalah objectnya.

To infinitive digunakan di belakang kata kerja dengan pola:

             S + V + (pro)noun + to infinitive

 

             Group B : VERB + ( PRO)NOUN + TO INFINITIVE

tell someone invite someone require someone ask someone
advise someone permit someone order someone expect someone
encourage someone allow someone force someone would like someone
remind someone warn someone Urge want someone
Require Teach Warn need someone, etc.

Contoh:

  1. The Captain ordered the members to stop playing football.
  2. Ahmad told me to be here at ten o’clock.
  3. The teacher permits the students to leave.
  4. They invite us to come to the party.
  5. They advise me to wait in the park.
  6. He prefers Fatimah to do the working.
  7. She ordered me to leave.
  8. I wanted them to help the poor.
  1. Adverb after Adjective

ADJECTIVE + TO INFINITIVE

Glad Proud determined shocked
Happy Ashamed Careful stunned
Pleased Ready Hesitant sorry
Delighted Prepared Reluctant sad
Content Anxious Afraid upset
Relieved Eager surprised disappointed
Lucky Willing Amused  
Fortunate Motivated antonished  

Contoh:

  1. We were sorry to hear the bad news.
  2. They are glad to meet you here.
  3. She is not ready to go
  1. Noun Modifier

To infinitive berfungsi sebagai kata sifat (adjective). Dalam hal ini, to infinitive sering diartikan passive “untuk di …” dan active “untuk …”. To infinitive ini menggantikan posisinya adjective clause.

Contoh:

  1. I have a few words to say.

           to be said.

                 Shinta has a few words which she can say.

                 (Shinta mempunyai beberapa kata untuk dia katakan)

  1. I have bought a book to read.

to be read

                 I have bought a book which I can read.

                 (Saya telah membeli sebuah buku untuk dibaca)

  1. Sentence Modifier of result

To infinitive berfungsi sebagai penjelas dari seluruh kalimat nominal     di depannya. Dalam hal ini to infinitive diartikan passive “untuk di …”

Contoh:

  1. The panorama is beautiful enough to see.

             The panorama is so beautiful that we can see it.

  1. The case which happens is light enough for him to carry.

             The case is so light that he can carry it.

  1. He is too young to understand.
  2. He is so young that he can not understand.
  1. Sentence Modifier of Purpose

To infinitive menjadi modifier dari seluruh kalimat di depannya dan yang melakukan to infinitive adalah subjectnya. Dalam hal ini to infinitive diartikan “agar/supaya dapat”.

  • Sentence modifier after verb (intransitive verb)
  • He works to get

    He works in order that he can get money.

  • To get money, he works.

    In order that he can get money, he works.

  • Sentence modifier after noun
  • He saves his money to buy a new dictionary.

He saves his money in order that he can buy a new dictionary.

  • To increase her English skills, she studies English.

In order that she can increase her English skills, she studies English.

  • Sentence modifier after adverb
  • I went to Elfast to study

I went to Elfast in order that I could study English.

  • To get much money, my father works hard.

In order that my father can get much money, my father works hard.

  1. Modifier of A Question Word/Conjuntion

To infinitive berfungsi sebagai keterangan tanda tanya. To infinitive digunakan di belakang kata Tanya (question words/conjunction) berikut:

when

whoseWhere

Whathow

whichwhom

Contoh:

  1. I don’t know what to do.

I don’t know what I can/must do.

  1. Please tell me how to get to the bus station.

Please tell me how I can get to the bus station.

  1. Bakri told us where to find

Bakri told us where he could find it.

  1. Mrs. Nani doesn’t know how to maintain the computer.

Mrs. Nani doesn’t know how Mrs. Nani can/must maintain the computer.

  1. Noun Modifier after “ the only, the next, the first, the fourth” and after any other Superlative Form

To infinitive digunakan setelah: the only, the next, the first, the fourth” and after any other Superlative Form. Dalam hal ini to infinitive diartikan “yang …”.

Contoh:

  1. He was the first man to work in this company.

He was the first man who worked in this company.

  1. The cleverest student to have studied at Dandelion for 2 years is my friend.

The cleverest student who has studied at Dandelion for 2 years is my friend.

  1. Gerund

To infinitive bermakna sama dengan gerund yaitu menempati posisi noun tetapi masih berfungsi sebagai verb. To infinitive bisa bermakna sama dengan gerund yaitu bila to infinitive berada di posisi:

  1. Subject

Contoh:

To study English is our duty.

                 To swim makes us healthy.

  1. Subjective complement

Contoh:

My hobby is to swim in the river.

Our duty is to study English.

  1. After certain verb
Begin                      start                     hate

prefer                     love                        (can’t) bear

continue                   like                      (can’t) stand

 Contoh:

The student starts to study English.

Tina prefers to study English than (to) go to the movie.

  1. Bentuk Negative dari Infinitive

Bentuk Negative dari suatu infinitive dapat dibentuk dengan menambahkan not di depan to.

Contoh:

  1. He decided not to go to the movie.
  2. It is wrong not to help
  3. You are not to leave the room until he comes.
  4. I told him not to open the window.

Notes:

Not dalam infinitive tidak sama dengan not dalam kalimat negative. Perhatikan berikut:

  1. Not dalam kalimat negative

Contoh:

  1. It is not better to go.

(Pergi tidak berarti lebih baik)

  1. Do not tell him to come.

(Jangan menyuruh dia datang)

  1. She didn’t ask me to wait.

(Dia tidak menyuruh saya menunggu)

  1. Not dalam infinitive

Contoh:

  1. It is better not to go.

(Lebih baik tidak pergi)

  1. Tell him not to come.

(Suruh dia jangan datang)

  1. He asked me not to wait.

(Dia menyuruh saya jangan menunggu)

  1. Bentuk Continuous Infinitive

Ada dua macam bentuk continuous infinitive yaitu:

  1. Present continuous ( … to be + V ing …)
  2. Perfect continuous ( … to have + been + V ing …)
  1. Present continuous infinitive

Bentuk dari present continuous infinitive menunjukkan bahwa suatu kejadian atau peristiwa atau perbuatan telah terjadi dan masih berlangsung terus.

Contoh:

  1. She seems to be recovering.

(Kelihatannya dia sedang dalam keadaan sembuh kembali)

  1. They are likely to be waiting for us at the station.

(Mereka rupanya sedang menunggu kita di stasiun)

  1. He seems to be dreaming.

(Dia kelihatannya sedang bermimpi)

  1. Perfect continuous infinitive

Bentuk Perfect continuous infinitive menunjukkan bahwa suatu kejadian atau peristiwa atau perbuatan sudah selesai dilakukan.

Contoh:

  1. They are said to have been studying English in London.

(Katanya mereka pernah mempelajari bahasa Inggris di London)

  1. She suspected us to have been quarelling.

(Dia menduga bahwa telah terjadi pertengkaran di antara kita)

  1. The students are so happy to have been studying at SDN 2

(Para siswa sangat gembira bahwa kami telah pernah belajar di SDN 2)

  1. Bentuk Perfect Infinitive

Bentuk ini menunjukkan bahwa peristiwa atau perbuatan yang dinyatakan oleh infinitive terjadi atau dilakukan lebih awal daripada peristiwa atau perbuatan yang dinyatakan oleh finite verb.

                        ( …. To have + V3 … )

     Contoh:

  1. Mira feels so sorry to have made you bored.

(Saya menyesal sekali talah membuat kamu bosan)

  1. The case was reported to have fixed.

(Permasalahan itu dilaporkan telah selesai)

  1. She seemed to have heard about it.

(Dia kelihatanya sudah mendengar tentang hal itu)

  1. The Passive Infinitive

Ada dua bentuk passive infinitive yang sahabat harus ketahui, yaitu:

  1. Simple ( … to be + V3 )

to be written

to be asked   etc.

  1. Perfect ( … to have + been + V3 )

                 to have been written

                 to have been tried   etc.

     Contoh:

  1. Marlina doesn’t see that on Tuesday there is anything to be informed.

(Marlina kira sudah tidak ada suatu hal yang akan diinformasikan lagi pada hari selasa)

  1. He ought to be punished for being rude.

(Dia harus dihukum atas kekasarannya)

  1. The Novel book is said to have been read by 1 million people

(Buku novel ini katanya sudah dibaca oleh 1 juta orang)

  1. This work ought to have been finished when the supervisor came.

(Pekerjaan ini mestinya sudah diselesaikan ketika supervisor datang)

INFINITIVE TANPA TO (BARE INFINITIVE)

  1. Digunakan setelah modal auxiliary.

Contoh:

  1. I can go with you.
  2. She must come here again.
  3. We will learn English.
  1. Digunakan setelah kata kerja (verb) tertentu seperti:
see : melihat bid : suruh
hear : mendengar let : marilah, biarlah
make : membuat please : silakan
feel : merasa need not : tidak perlu
watch : jaga dare not : tidak berani
know : tahu behold : melihat
observe : mengamati find : menemukan
catch : menangkap keep : menjaga
etc.

Kata-kata kerja ini hanya menghilangkan satu To.

Misalnya:     I saw him come to learn.

  • Setelah “saw” terdapat come, maka “come” tidak boleh memakai to, tetapi jika setelah come tidak ada lagi kata kerja, maka harus memakai to (lihat: to learn).

            Contoh:

  1. You must let him go out. bukan to go out
  2. I know her learn from you. bukan to learn from you
  3. Let us come there.
  4. I dare not stay here.
  5. I need not tell you about it.
  1. Setelah kata:
need not                       dare not (tidak berani)          would rather (lebih suka)

 Contoh:

  1. You need not say anything to her.
  2. I dare not open the box.
  3. You had better take a taxi.
  1. Dalam “that clause”, setelah kata kerja menyatakan saran, nasihat, atau usulan.

Contoh:

She proposes that Rina see the doctor seen. (bukan to see)

Semoga Bermanfaat para pembaca SBI!!!

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